Workforce Management Complexity - Simplified.

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Workforce Management White Papers

Public Sector - General

"Responding to the Needs of Women Veterans Involved in the Criminal Justice System", August, 2014 the National Institute of Justice (NIJ)  highlights the unique experiences and needs of women veterans who become justice-involved and offers a gender and trauma informed approach that criminal justice practitioners can use to more effectively manage this population.

"Grants Help Agencies Expand Budgets", Fall, 2011 the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funds physical and social science research as well as development and evaluation projects about criminal justice through competitive solicitations.

Coping with Crisis - How are Local Governments Reinventing Themselves in the Wake of the Great Recession?", December, 2011 from ICMA (the International City/County Management Association) finds that local governments throughout the nation are dealing with the ongoing effects of the economic recession and have moved past a “business as usual” approach to cutting costs and improving efficiency.

Achievement Award 2011 Smart Governance Best Practices", this NACO publication showcases some of the positive practices being conducted at the county level during the current tough economic times.

"Coping With the New Normal An Economic Status Survey", in early October 2011 the NACO conducted an economic status survey of counties of all population groups. This is the sixth survey in a series of twice yearly efforts by NACo to try to capture information about counties as they struggle with the current fiscal situation.

"Comparing Compensation: State-Local Versus Private Sector Workers", September, 2011 by Alicia H. Munnell, Jean-Pierre Aubry, Josh Hurwitz, and Laura Quinby for the Center for State and Local Government Excellence is a comparative report of the state and local government employees earning compared with private sector workers with similar jobs and education.

Government's Productivity Imperative," 2009 by Hans Arnum, Thomas Dohrmann, John Dowdy and Allison Phillips presents insights as to how government can understand operation improvements to boost productivity which require clear mandates, performance targets and a workforce equipped with the right skills and capabilities.

"Mobile Workforce Management", March, 2009 by ICMA takes a more holistic and integrated look at how to approach the mobile workforce, with the goal of improving an organization's talent management results, profitability, agility while ensuring employee satisfaction and well-being.

Law Enforcement

Policing Strategic Research Plan, August, 2017 (NIJ, This paper delves into NIJ research goals and priorities for the next five years and covers how to optimize workfroce development of sworn and non-sworn personnel, policing best practices and the relation ship between policing and communities.

The Challenge and Promise of Using Community Policing Strategies to Prevent Violent Extremism: A Call for Community Partnerships with Law Enforcement to Enhance Public Safety, March, 2016 (NIJ) 

The Law Enforcement Social Media Blog: The Online Resource for Law Enforcement and Social Media, January, 2016 (NIJ) This is a great resource for improving or beginning the use of social media in law enforceent. 

Evaluation of the Shreveport Predictive Policing Experiment, July, 2015 (NIJ) In 2010, the Shreveport, LA Police Department (SPD) developed a predictive policing program, titled Predictive Intelligence Led Operational Targeting (PILOT). This report documents an assessment of PILOT in 2012, which was conducted to evaluate the crime reduction effects of policing guided by statistical predictions. 

Toward a Profession of Police Leadership, June, 2015 (NIJ)  In this paper, the authors examine what it means to be a leader within the policing field, and advocate for reframing leadership through the adoption of "learning organizations." 

The Police and Public Discourse on “Black-on-Black” Violence, May 2015 (NIJ) 

Visions of Law Enforcement Technology in the Period 2024-2034 - (2015) This NIJ paper presents the results of a workshop held in April, 2014 as part of the National Institute of Justice’s (NIJ‘s) and the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center’s (NLECTC’s) Priority Criminal Justice Needs Initiative, which is exploring future visions of law enforcement and the identification and prioritizing of needs in technology, policy, and practice based on these visions. 

From Warriors to Guardians: Recommitting American Police Culture to Democratic Ideals -(April, 2015) In this NIJ paper, the authors advocate for a recommitment to democratic ideals within law enforcement to combat the culture and mindset that officers are warriors at war with the people they are sworn to protect.

New Perspectives in Policing - (March, 2015) In this NIJ policing paper, Malcolm K. Sparrow explores how defining and measuring law enforcement success in a more comprehensive and balanced way can more accurately show the multiple dimensions of police performance.  

Law Enforcement Challenges and Lessons Learned with Computer Aided Dispatch Systems and Records Management Systems. (July, 2012 issued by Cotter Reseach) The impetus for this survey came from the recent Technology Survey that Cotter Research conducted in June 2012.

The Shift Length Experiment:  What We Know About 8-, 10-, and 12-Hour Shifts in Policing (December, 2011 from the The Police Foundation) is necessary reading for any agency looking to change from an 8-hour schedule to either a 10- or 12-hour schedule due in part to achieve reduced budgets.

Police Leadership Challenges in a Changing World (July, 2012, sponsored by NIJ) argues that "contemporary employees" demonstrate skill sets, attitudes and expectations that are among the competencies needed for 21st century law enforcement.

Evidence Based Policing (NIJ Journal / Issue No. 269), March 2012 from the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) reflects on how law enforcement agencies can do a better job using science to reduce crime.

The Impact of the Economic Downturn on American Police Agencies, October, 2011 from the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS ) examines the impact the economy has had on the law enforcement community.

Merging Technologies for Better Policing, December, 2011 from the NIJ - National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center reports that the Minneapolis Police Department is enjoying a steady decretechnologies.ase in crime rates and more efficient use of manpower thanks to a cohesive use of different

"Resources for Law Enforcement", Fall, 2011 highlights resources available for free or low cost within and without the National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center System.

“Strategic Cutback Management: Law Enforcement Leadership for Lean Times”, July, 2011 by Jane Wiseman for the NIJ presents lessons learned from past experience and suggests approaches that law enforcement leaders can use to address the financial crises in today's agencies.

"Measuring What Matters: Proceedings From the Policing Research Institute Meetings”, July, 2009 by Robert H. Langworthy for the NIJ and COPS presents a step-by-step instruction for beginning a performance measurement effort and provides helpful advice and suggestions for the implementation process.

“Police Overtime: An Examination of Key Issues”, May, 1998 by David H. Bayley and Robert E. Worden for the NIJ offers a classic explanation of how to manage overtime.


Correctional Officer Safety and Wellness — What We Learned from the Research Literature, July 24, 2017 fro NIC, A new NIJ-supported paper identifies risks officers confront, assesses officers’ perspectives on workplace risk, notes key limitations in the research literature, and recommends policies designed to enhance officer well-being

Training from A to E: Analysis to Evaluation, October, 2016 from NIC, The purpose of this paper is to provide learning performance professionals, curriculum designers, trainers, and others involved in the training profession an overview of the importance of analysis and evaluation when providing training to correctional professionals. 

The Corrections Learning Organization, 2016 from NIC, This white paper explains how you can make your agency into a learning organization. Sections cover; what a learning organization is; what a learning organization looks like; how it all applies to corrections; the importance of line leaders and managers; the function of executive leaders; the influence of internal networkers; and the future of corrections—leadership is learning.

Stress and Corrections: Addressing the Safety and Well-Being of Correctional Officers, December, 2015 from NIC - This article is a snapshot of ongoing work and a growing national consortium of individuals interested in advancing the well-being of the correctional workforce

Training Today’s New Jail Staff for Tomorrow’s Fire, July, 2015 from NIC- A jail that has recently experienced a fire and smoke incident has a heightened awareness of the need for effective fire response training. 

"Jail Administration [Participants' Manual", May 2015 from NIC - This 36-hour program focuses on the basic skills and competencies jail administrators need to effectively meet this responsibility.

"Countering Staff Stress—Why and How", 2015 from NIC addresses how workplace stress experienced by correctional staff can lead to depression, poor performance, absenteeism, “burnout,” post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and even suicide. The costs to agencies, both in fiscal and human terms, can be high.  The authors of this article present information about the causes and pervasiveness of workplace stress experienced by jail staff. 

"Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections, Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector", 2015 from U.S. Department of Justice’s National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the RAND Corporation, in partnership with the Police Executive Research Forum, RTI International, and the University of Denver, is carrying out a research effort to assess and prioritize technology and related needs across the criminal justice community. This white paper is a component of NIJ’s National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) system and is intended to support innovation in criminal justice.

"The Greening of Corrections -- Creating a Sustainable System", May, 2011 from NIC explaines how corrections can achieve some substantial cost savings in sustainability or greening strategies. This publication “provides correctional professionals with a framework to gain a general understanding of sustainability practices and principles and to identify examples of operations, programs, and management strategies for self-sustaining facilities”.

Exploring the Role of the Police in Prisoner Reentry (July, 2012 by Jeremy Travis, Ronald Davis, and Sarah Lawrence for the NIJ argues that police, particularly urban police departments, have a major role to play in prisoner reentry, in part because of high recidivism rates among returning offenders and because of their concentration in some of the poorest, highest crime neighborhoods.

Taking the “Green Way” to Reducing Costs and Increasing Efficiency (Spring, 2012 from NLECTC TechBeat) reviews the Greening Corrections Technology Guidebook, a new, free online publication produced by the Corrections Technology Center of Excellence (CoE).

Culture and Change Management: Using APEX To Facilitate Organizational Change in Corrections (NIC / ACCN 025300) focuses on organizational culture and change management.  It offers practical suggestions for improving performance and creating positive change in correctional agencies. This publication explains the APEX system’s approach to change management and includes strategies to implement large-scale change.

Correctional Resources - Environmental Scan 2011 (ACCN 025630), February, 2012 from the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) discusses demographic and social trends, criminal justice trends, corrections populations, trends and international developments.

 Prison Staffing Analysis (022667), December, 2008 from the National Institute of Corrections (NIC) addresses how agency staffing administrators can set up an agency staffing analysis unit and produce a staffing analysis report for an entire agency.

Fire and EMS

Accreditation - What Does Self-Assessment Mean for Your Community? (Center for Public Safety Excellence), August, 2017 - This supplement on fire department accreditation explains how the process works and the benefits.

Funding Alternatives for Emergency Medical and Fire Services (2012 Edition U.S. Fire Administration) provides information regarding funding for local level Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and fire departments, including sources of federal funding as well as other new and innovative funding sources.

Handbook for EMS Medical Directors (March, 2012 U.S. Fire Administration) offers a baseline overview of key roles and responsibilities to assist current and prospective medical directors who support local-level EMS departments. Issues covered include training, certification, personnel selection, health and safety, billing, and liability.